Notes and Problems with Robert Spencer

Ehteshaam Gulam

Note: These are just notes and some problems and inconsitencies I noted with Robert Spencer's book, The Truth About Muhammad: The Founder of the World's Most Intolerant Religion. Among them, the Problems with Ibn Ishaq, The fake stories of The Satanic Verses, the Battles of the Prophet.  I apologize if there is no logical flow to this article, But I wanted to publish it so anyone interested in helping me debate Robert Spencer can see it. If you feel like you can help with debating Rob Spencer, please email me.

Arabia was a rough land. Blood feuds between Tribes were frequent, and the people had grown to be as harsh and unyielding as their desert land. Women were treated as chattel; child marriage (of girls as young as seven or eight) and female infanticide were common, as women were regarded as a financial liability. Polygamy was widely practiced, before Islam a man could have as many wives as he wanted in Arabia. Women could not inherit Property, etc.

Signs of the Muhammad’s Prophethood

The young Muhammad demonstrated his special bond with Allah in a
conversation with the monk Bahira, who invoked the pagan goddesses al-Lat
and al-'Uzza. The future Prophet of Islam would have none of it: "Do not ask
me by al-Lat and al-'Uzza, for by Allah nothing is more hateful to me than
those two." Bahira then proceeded to ask him questions, and Muhammad
answered them in accord with what was expected of a future prophet. Bahira
"looked at his back and saw the seal of prophethood between his shoulders
in the very place described in his book." Bahira then told Abu Talib: "Take
your nephew back to his country and guard him carefully against the Jews,
for by Allah! If they see him and know about him what I know, they will do
him evil; a great future lies before this nephew of yours, so take him home
quickly." 5—From Ibn Ishaq page 80

He added: "Verily the Jews are his enemies, and he is the Prophet
of these people; he is an Arab and the Jews are jealous of him wishing that
he should have been an Israelite. So guard your brother's son." Ibn Sa’d Volume 1 page 177 

Yathrib or Madinah

In Medina itself were three powerful Jewish tribes: the Banu Qaynuqa, Banu Nadir, and Banu Qurayzah.

The Covenant of Madinah—Prophet Muhammad signed a Covenant or agreement with the Jewish tribes of Madiah. This is considered to be the World’s first constitution. The Covenant of Madinah stated that the Jews and Muslims would live peacefully side by side.

The document also details the rights and responsibilities of outsiders, outlining in relatively generous terms the rights of the Banu Auf (Auf tribe) and other Jewish tribes, mandating mutual defense and declaring off-limits any cooperation with the Quraysh:

To the Jew who follows us belong help and equality. He shall notbe wronged nor shall his enemies be aided The Jews shallcontribute to the cost of war so long as they are fighting alongsidethe believers. The Jews of the B. 'Auf are one communitywith the believers (the Jews have their religion and the Muslimshave theirs), their freedmen and their persons except those whobehave unjustly and sinfully, for they hurt but themselves andtheir families. The same applies to the Jews of the B. al-Najjar,B. al-Harith, B. Sa'ida, B. Jusham, B. al-Aus, B. Tha'laba, and theJafna, a clan of the Tha'laba and the B. al-Shutayba.

However the Jews continued to reject and harass the Prophet. One of the rabbis of Madinah, Abdullah bin Salam accepted Prophet Muhammad as a Prophet of God.

Abdullah was deeply impressed with Prophet Muhammad: "When I heard about the apostle I knew by his description,name, and the time at which he appeared that he was the one wewere waiting for, and I rejoiced greatly there at, though I kept silent about
it until the apostle came to Medina."

Abdullah asked Prophet Muhammad three questions that nobody knows except a Prophet. Prophet Muhammad answered all three questions, and when he did, Abdullah immediately converted to Islam. When the Jews of Madinah learned of this, they rejected Abdullah and said "Abdullah is the worst of us, and the son of the worst of us."

The Jews knew that Prophet Muhammad was the prophet they were expecting according to their Torah.  Prophet Muhammad went to a Jewish seminary, where he challenged the rabbis:"Bring forward the most learned among you before me." When that man came forward, he and Muhammad spoke in private. Finally Muhammad asked him, "Do you know that I am the Apostle of Allah?" The rabbi answered, "By Allah! Yes, and the people know what I know.Verily your attributes and qualities are clearly mentioned in the Torah, butthey are jealous of you." (Ibn Sa'd, vol. I, 188..)

So the Jews knew about the Prophet, they knew that he was the Prophet according to their own Torah. However they still rejected the Prophet, despite this.

According to scholar John Esposito, Jihad requires Muslims to "struggle in the way of God" or "to struggle to improve one's self and/or society." From Islam: The Straight Path, pp.93 

The Hypocrites

At this point, according to Ibn Ishaq, some of the Hypocrites (munafiqin)
of Medina began to make common cause with the Jews who opposed
Muhammad. The Hypocrites were members of the tribes of Medina who
had become Muslim; they converted out of fear and convenience and
began, according to the early Muslim sources, to act as a fifth column
within the Muslim community. The Qur'an is full of furious invective
against them and their plots against Muhammad. Muhammad also
received revelations attacking the Hypocrites for their dishonesty, warning
them of the dreadful punishment that awaited them, and redolent with
frustration and anger at their duplicity. (Qur'an 2:8-15)

Important points of refutations of Robert Spencer’s book

Does Islam permit Muslims to rape their female slaves? No if one were to look at the evidence.
Is Ibn Ishaq reliable as a source of information in regards to Prophet Muhammad? No Ibn Ishaq is not considered a reliable book on the Prophet when one looks at the evidence.
What is the true meaning of Jihad in Islam?
The Mascare of the Banu Qurazhyza—did it really happen? Again goes back to is the sira of Ibn Ishaq reliable or not
Did the Prophet allow the rape of the women of the Tribe of Mustaliq?
Did the Battle of Tabuk actually happen?
Did the Prophet break the treaty of the Hudaybiyyah with the Meccans? Again no, it was the Qurasyh who broke the treaty.
Did the Satanic Verses incident actually happen? No if we were to look at the evidence.
Did Prophet Muhammad copy off the Bible, the Talmud or the Apocryphal sources? No, as we can see there is no evidence for this and has excellent responses to this type of argument.
Very Interestingly, Robert Spencer makes no mention of Jesus rolling out of the 12 year old Virgin Mary’s birth canals. It’s a fact that the Virgin Mary was 12 years old when she gave birth to Jesus (a fact that is disturbing to Atheists and even Christians alike—even I am disturbed by this) yet Mr. Spencer makes no mention of this. However Rob Spencer does say that child marriages were common in Arabia (page 171), but Muslims have maintained that Aisha passed through the age of puberty (*) (*) when marrying the Prophet. Some Muslims have even said that Aisha was not 9, and instead was 14 or 17 when she was married to the Prophet (which is what I believe). But in any case, Rob is right, In 6th Century Arabia when girls reached puberty (which was around 8 or 9) they were eligebible for marriage.
Robert Spencer states that Prophet Muhammad ordered the killings of Asma Bin Marwan, Abu Afak, two poets who made fun of the Prophet. The problem is that these stories are found in Ibn Ishaq—and are fictional. Another story that is fictional and found only in Ibn Ishaq that Spencer quotes is the story of The Prophet torturing a man named Kinna with fire for money—however again this story is false and only found in Ibn Ishaq—the least authentic source for the Prophet’s life.

In Islam war is either just or unjust. It is never holy.

The Raiding of Caravans In Pre-Islamic Arabia, caravan raiding was a legitimate means for small clans to benefit from the wealth of larger ones. In other words, raiding of the caravans was an old Arab tradition before the rise of Islam.

The Muslims began raiding Quraysh caravans, with Muhammad himself leading many of these raids.

These raids were not solely designed to exact revenge from the people who had rejected the Prophet who had arisen among them. The Muslims were kicked out of Mecca and they had no Economic support. The raids served a key economic purpose, keeping the Muslim movement solvent.

In the Battle of Badr—Prophet Muhammad and the early Muslims won against a large army of Meccans.

The Jews continue to Reject Prophet Muhammad.

The Qaynuqa Jews were exiled from Madinah and left some of their property behind.

The Banu Nadir left Madinah for Khaybar taking their wealth and property with them.

The Banu Qurayzah Then to make matters even worse, a tribe of Jews in Medina, the Banu Qurayzah, broke their covenant with the Prophet of Islam (perhaps after reflecting upon the fate of the Banu Qaynuqa and Banu Nadir) and began collaborating with the Quraysh

The Prophet Muhammad is told as being One of his companions described him as "neither rough nor harsh. He is neither noisy in the markets nor returns evil for evil, but he forgives and pardons." Ibn Sa'd, vol. I, 422.

Another said that Muhammad, improbable as it may seem, was "more bashful than a
maiden in her seclusion." Ibn Sa’d Vol 1 page 432

He "was not a reviler or a curser nor obscene." Ibid page 433.

Ibn Ishaq says the Prophet fought 27 battles. According to Muslim (the second most trusted hadith collection besides Bukhari’s hadith collection), Prophet Muhammad fought about 82 battles within the span of 10 years. 

The Battle of Uhud—The Quraysh of Mecca—who wanted revenge against the Muslims. They had about 3000 Meccan fighters and the Prophet and the Muslims numbered about 1000 warriors.

The Muslims were winning against the Meccans when fighting the battle of Uhud but then Satan called out

Prophet Muhammad forbid multilating bodies in  Ibn Ishaq page 387 and  in the Bukhari Hadith:

Narrated 'Abdullah bin Yazid Al-Ansari: The Prophet forbade robbery (taking away what belongs to others without their permission), and also forbade mutilation (or maiming) of bodies. (Bukhari Volume 3, Book 43, Number 654)

Some verses of the Quran tell Muhammad and the Muslims to slay the polythesists wherever you confront them (Quran 9:5), and to fight those who do not believe in God and the last day (Quran 9:29). However, it must be understood that these verses were directed specifically at the Quraysh and their clandestine partisans in Yathrib—speificially named in the Quran as “the polytheists” and “the hypocrites” respectively with whom the Ummah was locked in a terrible war.

The Banu Nadir agreed to go into Exile. They kept most of their property with them. Muhammad allowed the Jews to carry what they could on their camels, but demanded that they turn over all weapons (Ibn Ishaq page 437). Some people of Nadir destroyed their own homes (In Ibn Sa'd, vol. II, 70.). What the Jews couldn't carry with them became Muhammad's personal property, however the Prophet did not keep this for himself.  Prophet Muhammad distributed this booty among the muhajiroun, the Muslims who had emigrated with him from Mecca to Medina. (Ibn Ishaq, 438.)

Some Jews of the Banu Nadir had decided to kill the Prophet by dropping a large stone on his head one day. The Muslims heard about this and told Muhammad.  Ibn Ishaq page 504. Despite the Jews constant attacks and assisination attempts Prophet Muhamamd merely told them to leave Madinah (Ibid).

Prophet Muhammad never kept any war booty for himself as a matter of fact, Umar ibn Khuttab (one of the closest disciples of the Prophet)  is known to have said, "The properties abandoned by Banu Nadir were the ones which Allah bestowed upon His

Apostle These properties were particularly meant for the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him). He would meet the annual expenditure of his family from the income thereof, and would spend what remained for purchasing horses and weapons as preparation for Jihad." (Shaih Muslim Book 19 Number 4347) 

It has been narrated on the authority of Umar, who said: The properties abandoned by Banu Nadir were the ones which Allah bestowed upon His Apostle for which no expedition was undertaken either with cavalry or camelry. These properties were particularly meant for the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him). He would meet the annual expenditure of his family from the income thereof, and would spend what remained for purchasing horses and weapons as preparation for Jihad. (Muslim Book 019, Number 4347)

Muhammad was well known as a man of simple tastes: he did not indulge in lavish displays, live in sumptuous quarters, or adorn himself in pomp and splendor. He spent as much as he could on jihad.

After the Exile of the Banu Qaynua and the Banu Nadir Jewish Tribes, some of those Jews who remained approached the Quraysh, offering an alliance against Muhammad and the Muslims. The Quraysh readily accepted. So these Jews were guilty of treason.

The Jews of Khaybar went into exile like the Banu Nadir (Ibn Sa’d Volume 2 page 132 and 133). It is alleged that there were treasures found in Khaybar. The Jewish farmers asked to stay in Khaybar and Prophet Muhammad let them stay (Ibn Sa'd, vol. II, 136.)

Again it is alleged from Ibn Ishaq that treasures were found in Khaybar, but this is not true. In Bukhari, vol. 5, book 64, no. 4428 the Muslims were so poor that when they went to Khaybar, they ate their fill of dates for the first time.

Banu Nadir in Khaybar, who were inciting hostilities along with neighboring Arab tribes against Muhammad.

Muhammad agreed to let the people of Khaybar go into exile.

During one of them, against the pagan Arab Ghatafan tribe, he was surprised by an enemy warrior while resting. The warrior asked him: "Who will defend you
from me today?" The Prophet of Islam replied coolly, "Allah"—whereupon the warrior dropped his sword. Muhammad seized it quickly and asked, "Who will
defend you from me?" "None," said the warrior, and he recited the Shahada, the Islamic profession of faith ("there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet"), and became a Muslim. (source Ibn Sa'd, vol. II, 40)

The Journey to Tabuk – Prophet Muhammad had heard that the Heraclius the Byzantine emperor heard about Islam and was trying to wipe out the Muslims once and for all. Prophet Muhammad heard about this when he was in Mecca and with an Army of 30,000 Muslims went to Tabuk (which is North western Arabia) for defense. After arriving at Tabouk, Prophet Muhamamd and the Muslim Army was ready to fight the Byzantines. However the Byzantines were not in Tabuk, they had left. The local Arab tribes gave their allegiance to Prophet Muhammad and agreed to the payment of the Jizyah. The Tribes of NorthWest Arabia gave up their ties with the Byzantines d joined with Muhammad, enlarging the Muslim state.This is a questionable event, as we’ve seen that Ibn Ishaq shouldn’t be trusted 100%-- rather it is likely that this battle is fictional.

After Tabuk-------- Prophet Muhammad returned to Madinah.

The Battle of Hunayn—After the Conquest of Mecca, the Arab Tribe (of Hawazin) had decided to fight the Muslims. It is documented history that the tribe of Hawazin were marching against the Muslim army in order to attack them. They also brought with their women and children among with them.

Prophet Muhammad then got his army ready for defense. The Hawazin tribe was defeated and Six thousand captives including women and children, forty thousand sheeps and goats, four thousand ounces of silver and twenty four thousand camels formed the booty of Hunain. The Hawazin leaders then decided to beg for mercy and forgivness. Prophet Muhammad forgave them and returned their women and children back.

Narrated Sahl ibn al-Hanzaliyyah: On the day of Hunayn we traveled with the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) and we journeyed for a long time until the evening came. I attended the prayer along with the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him). A horseman came and said: Apostle of Allah, I went before you and climbed a certain mountain where saw Hawazin all together with their women, cattle, and sheep, having gathered at Hunayn. (declared authentic by Shaykh Albani in Sunan Abu Dawud hadith no. 2501) (Abu Dawud Book 14, Number 2495)

The Prophet returned the captives back to the Hawazin...

Narrated Marwan and Al-Miswar bin Makhrama: When the delegates of the tribe of Hawazin came to the Prophet and they requested him to return their properties and captives. The Prophet stood up and said to them, "I have other people with me in this matter (as you see) and the most beloved statement to me is the true one; you may choose either the properties or the prisoners as I have delayed their distribution." The Prophet had waited for them for more than ten days since his arrival from Ta'if. So, when it became evident to them that the Prophet was not going to return them except one of the two, they said, "We choose our prisoners." The Prophet got up amongst the people and glorified and praised Allah as He deserved and said, "Then after, these brethren of yours have come to us with repentance, and I see it logical to return them the captives. So, whoever amongst you likes to do that as a favor, then he can do it, and whoever of you likes to stick to his share till we recompense him from the very first war booty which Allah will give us, then he can do so (i.e. give up the present captives)." The people unanimously said, "We do that (return the captives) willingly." The Prophet said, "We do not know which of you has agreed to it and which have not, so go back and let your leaders forward us your decision." So, all the people then went back and discussed the matter with their leaders who returned and informed the Prophet that all the people had willingly given their consent to return the captives. This is what has reached us about the captives of Hawazin. Narrated Anas that 'Abbas said to the Prophet, "I paid for my ransom and Aqil's ransom." (Bukhari Volume 3, Book 46, Number 716)

Narrated Al-Miswar bin Makhrama and Marwan: When the delegates of the tribe of Hawazin came to the Prophet he stood up amongst the people, Glorified and Praised Allah as He deserved, and said, "Then after: Your brethren have come to you with repentance and I see it logical to return to them their captives; so whoever amongst you likes to do that as a favor, then he can do it, and whoever of you like to stick to his share till we give him his right from the very first Fai (war booty) (1) which Allah will bestow on us, then (he can do so)." The people replied, "We do that (to return the captives) willingly as a favor for your sake." (Bukhari Volume 3, Book 47, Number 757)

Narrated Marwan bin Al-Hakam and Al-Miswar bin Makhrama: When the delegates of the tribe of Hawazin came to the Prophet they requested him to return their property and their captives. He said to them, "This concerns also other people along with me as you see, and the best statement to me is the true one, so you may choose one of two alternatives; either the captives or the property and (I have not distributed the booty for) I have been waiting for you."
When the Prophet had returned from Ta'if, he waited for them for more than ten nights. When they came to know that the Prophet would not return except one of the two, they chose their captives. The Prophet then stood up amongst the Muslims, Glorified and Praised Allah as He deserved, and then said, "Then after: These brothers of yours have come to you with repentance and I see it proper to return their captives, so whoever amongst you likes to do that as a favor, then he can do it, and whoever of you wants to stick to his share till we pay him from the very first Fai (i.e. war booty) which Allah will give us, then he can do so." The people said, "We return (the captives) to them willingly as a favor, O Allah's Apostle!" The Prophet said, "I do not know who of you has given his consent and who has not; so go back and your leaders may present your decision to me." The people went away, and their leaders discussed the matter with them, and then came to the Prophet to tell him that all of them had given their consent (to return the captives) willingly. (Az-Zuhn, the sub-narrator said, "This is what we know about the captives, of Hawazin.") (Bukhari Volume 3, Book 47, Number 778

" Battle of Uhud was not a raid. Battle of the Trench was not a raid. Battle of Badr was not a raid." So Not all of the wars of the Prophet were raids.

The entire booty of Hunain had been collected for distribution by the Prophet. In the division of the spoils, a large proportion fell to the share of the newly converted Meccans than to the people of Medina.

Narrated Anas bin Malik: When Allah favored His Apostle with the properties of Hawazin tribe as Fai (booty), he started giving to some Quarries men even up to one-hundred camels each, whereupon some Ansari men said about Allah's Apostle, "May Allah forgive His Apostle! He is giving to (men of) Quraish and leaves us, in spite of the fact that our swords are still dropping blood (of the infidels)" When Allah's Apostle was informed of what they had said, he called the Ansar and gathered them in a leather tent and did not call anybody else along, with them. When they gathered, Allah's Apostle came to them and said, "What is the statement which, I have been informed, and that which you have said?" The learned ones among them replied," O Allah's Apostle! The wise ones amongst us did not say anything, but the youngsters amongst us said, 'May Allah forgive His Apostle; he gives the Quarish and leaves the Ansar, in spite of the fact that our swords are still dribbling (wet) with the blood of the infidels.' " Allah's Apostle replied, I give to such people as are still close to the period of Infidelity (i.e. they have recently embraced Islam and Faith is still weak in their hearts). Won't you be pleased to see people go with fortune, while you return with Allah's Apostle to your houses? By Allah, what you will return with, is better than what they are returning with." The Ansar replied, "Yes, O Allah's Apostle, we are satisfied' Then the Prophet said to them." You will find after me, others being preferred to you. Then be patient till you meet Allah and meet His Apostle at Al-Kauthar (i.e. a fount in Paradise)." (Anas added:) But we did not remain patient. (Bukhari Volume 4, Book 53, Number 375)

Ibn Sa'd, Kitab Al-Tabaqat Al-Kabir, Vol. I, S. Moinul Haq and H. K. Ghazanfar, translators, Kitab Bhavan

On Page 132—Robert Spencer insinuates that Prophet Muhammad was deeply attracted to Zaniab (who was married to Zaid) and that is why Zaid divorced Zanaib and the Prophet married her. However this story is found in Al-Tabari, and has been proven to be false.

Misgnostic Statements found in Robert Spencer’s book

Sex with Slave Girls
Hell is filled with Women--- hadith

It is said that the Prophet had 11 or 13 wives when he died. However according to Bukhari (the most authentic source on Prophet Muhammad according to Islamic tradition) Prophet had nine wives when he died.

One Muslim biographer of the Prophet of Islam surveys the circumstances of each of his marriages and concludes: "Thus do we see that each of these marriages had some solid reasons behind it; passion and lust were not among them." From  Syed Saeed Akhtar Rizvi, The Life of Muhammad the Prophet, Darul Tabligh North America, 1971.

As for the killing of the Banu Qurayzah, it can be argued that it never happened. One Islamic scholar, W. N. Arafat, published a lengthy article in 1976 arguingthat the massacre never happened, chiefly for the anachronistic reason that it would have violated Islamic law. (Source W. N. Arafat, "New Light on the Story of Banu Qurayza and the Jews of Medina," Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1976, 100-107.)

Narrated Abdullah Ibn Umar: The Prophet fought with the people of Khaybar, and captured their palm-trees and land, and forced them to remain confined to their fortresses. So they concluded a treaty of peace providing that gold, silver and weapons would go to the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him), and whatever they took away on their camels would belong to them, on condition that they would not hide and carry away anything. If they did (so), there would be no protection for them and no treaty (with Muslims).

They carried away a purse of Huyayy ibn Akhtab who was killed before (the battle of) Khaybar. He took away the ornaments of Banu an-Nadir when they were expelled. The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) asked Sa'yah: Where is the purse of Huyayy ibn Akhtab?

He replied: The contents of this purse were spent on battles and other expenses. (Later on) they found the purse. So he killed Ibn AbulHuqayq, captured their women and children, and intended to deport them. They said: Muhammad, leave us to work on this land; we shall have half (of the produce) as you wish, and you will have half. The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) used to make a contribution of eighty wasqs of dates and twenty wasqs of wheat to each of his wives. (Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 19, Number 3000)

Where on earth does it say that Kinana was tortured for treasure? No where does it say this. Also, where does it say that the main reason for Kinana being killed was because he "merely" hid treasure? It does not say that. Let us read the hadith again, while I emphasize in bold the important parts:

-The Muslims and the Jews at Khaybar were already at war
-         The Muslims and the Jews agreed to a peace treaty that ended the war.
-          The peace treaty stated that the Jews must not hide any treasure from the Muslims; otherwise this would be considered a violation of the treaty.
-          If the treaty is broken, then that means that the other party is a war combatant who must be fought and killed.
-          Kinana broke the treaty by hiding the treasure unjustifiably due to his greed.
-          Kinana was treated as a war combatant because he violated one of the conditions of the peace treaty.
-          War combatants are to be killed.
-          Kinana knew that what he would do would lead to his death if he were to get caught. No one forced him to lie or to be greedy. It was his choice.
-          Kinana's death was justifiable.

628 C.E.  Muhammad concludes the Treaty of Hudaybiyya with the pagan Meccans. Prophet Muhammad came with 15,000 men to Mecca, the Qurashy met him outside and they signed a peace treaty.

It has been narrated on the authority of al-Bara' b. 'Azib who said: 'Ali b. Abu Talib penned the treaty between the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) and the polytheists on the Day of Hudaibiya. He wrote: This is what Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, has settled. They (the polytheists) said: Do not write words" the Messenger of Allah". If we knew that you were the Messenger of Allah, we would not fight against you. The Prophet (may peace be upon him) said to 'Ali: Strike out these words. He (Ali) said: I am not going to strike them out. So the Prophet (may peace be upon him) struck them out with his own hand. The narrator said that the conditions upon which the two sides had agreed included that the Muslims would enter Mecca (next year) and would stay there for three days, and that they would not enter bearing arms except in their sheaths or bolsters. (Muslim Book 019, Number 4401)

This ensured peace between the Pagan Meccans and the Muslims. It is alleged that the Prophet broke the Treaty. Is this true? Nope. The Quraysh were the ones who broke the treaty. They were the ones who attacked the Muslim allies.

Emerick asserts that Muhammad based his case on a bit of legal hair-splitting: the treaty stipulated that the Muslims would return to the Quraysh any man who came to them, not any woman. A woman from the tribe of Mecca came to Madinah. Her relatives came to take her back and they told Prophet Muhammad to stick to the treaty. However, the Prophet replied back saying that the treaty only said that escaping MEN should be returned and the treaty mentions nothing about women who escape. The Quraysh did not clearly specify that the treaty was binding on both men and women. Allah sent down 66:10 to reaffirm to the Prophet that he should not return back any believing women to the Quraysh. But either way, the Prophet did not break the treaty!

Prophet Muhammad’s efforts led to the unification of the Arabian peninsula.

Prohibition against aggressive warfare:

"Fight in the cause of God those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for God loveth not transgressors. (Quran 2:190)

"But if the enemy incline towards peace, do thou (also) incline towards peace, and trust in God: for He is One that heareth and knoweth (all things) (Quran 8:61)

"If thou dost stretch thy hand against me, to slay me, it is not for me to stretch my hand against thee to slay thee: for I do fear God, the cherisher of the worlds. (Quran 5:28)

"And fight them until persecution is no more, and religion is for God.  But if they desist, then let there be no hostility except against wrongdoers.  (Quran 2:193)

God forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: for God loveth those who are just. God only forbids you, with regard to those who fight you for (your) Faith, and drive you out of your homes, and support (others) in driving you out, from turning to them (for friendship and protection). It is such as turn to them (in these circumstances), that do wrong. (Quran 60:8-9)